How to repair the electrics in the apartment or house: troubleshooting , laying new wiring
- 09 Jun 11:00
the wiring provokes periodic outages of devices that are connected to the network, and is often the cause of fires.Repairing electrical wiring in an apartment should be carried out in order to avoid accidents, as a faulty cable can harm and life and material well-being of man.
reasons for replacing wiring ↑
main reasonsthat encourage home owners to think about replacing the wiring on the new cable, appears constantly increasing need for the use of innovative household appliances.
Earlier in the construction of high-rise buildings to use cheap aluminum wire with a weak insulation, designed for low power consumption devices.The power of such a typical wiring was 2 kW, but modern home appliances required component more.
When simultaneous operation of the computer, refrigerator, hair dryer, washing machine, iron and kettle in the shield machine w
wiring in the apartment must be replaced every 20 years.Switches, dimmers and receptacles also are not durable and are designed for 5-7 years, depending on the connected loads.Protection devices should be changed every 10 years.
In most situations, the repair wiring own hands amounts to replacing the damaged section of the cable, troubleshooting or replacing the electrical fittings - switches, plugs, sockets, plugs and caps.
Causes of faults in the wiring are as follows:
- Short.These problems occur because of damage to the insulation in places where wires bend - in cartridges of lamps, input connection sockets for twisted wires electrical appliances.
- Bad contact at the connection wires.As a result, the wire is gradually warming, causing melting of the contacts, lived and burning insulation.
- mechanical cable damage occurs most often due to repairs near the wiring damaged during drilling or nailing walls.
repair electricians apartment ↑
Before starting electrical repairs in the apartment, you need to determine the cause of damage to the cable and fault location.Search problems is to divide the wiring in an apartment on the site.To do this at your fingertips, it is desirable to have a wiring diagram.
plan - the beginning of repair ↑
to completely replace the wiring in the apartment need new cabling plan showing all the connection points, the required cable cross-section, plugs, sockets, dimmers and switches.
to perform electrical work requires such tools and materials:
- Screwdrivers, cutter, pliers with insulated handles;
- cutters stripping;
- measuring device;
- drill with drill bits for wood or concrete;
- Hammer and attachments thereto;
- Fittings, Cable, Electrical;
- Cloth electrical tape;
- boxes of plastic for the installation of sockets;
- knife and a spatula;
- Putty gypsum.
necessary to accurately plan raschertit new wiring in each room and in general.This must be done for the future: after a certain period after the wiring you can not remember the exact location of the cable, so if the sight would not be the project postings, you can easily cause damage when attempting to hammer a nail or drill a hole.
How to choose a cable ↑
To determine the necessary cable cross-section should sum up the power requirements of appliances that are in the apartment, including light sources.By working power of each device to be added "in reserve" of 100 watts, and then according to Ohm's law, the final amount must be divided by 220. The resulting number is usually in the range of 12-16 amperes.Thus, the cross-section of copper cable should be close to 1.5 square millimeters.
If you get a great value, it should be from a switch board put several lines of cable, placing them in parallel and each of them has a separate machine breakers.This solution would be more acceptable than just assembling a larger wire gauge, which increases costs and reduces the reliability of power supply flat.Choosing the wire for installation in an apartment, it is better to give preference to copper.Such a wire for cable outperforms aluminum in half.
Rules wiring ↑
most important thing - to disconnect apartment by switching packet switch in the panel to "off".The electric wire in a cabinet not touch sleeved clothes or hands.To begin the repair wiring taken from the corridor: it is necessary to install the shield, lay new wires parallel to the old cable without damaging the latter, connected to the new wiring switches and sockets, leaving the other rooms in the old cable.Posting changes gradually in each room.You can also remove the old cable channel in this new place.
new wire should be laid "the wall", the old cable is completely removed.It is very difficult prodelyvat channels in the concrete wall, in this situation it is better to use Bulgarian.New channels
Grooves must be performed vertically and horizontally, without deviation.
Before laying cable in the new channels is recommended to verify its length on the floor, making sure repair electrical perfect pass.Having laid in electrically Grooves should zashpatlevat its gypsum putty.Set switches and sockets must be after drying putty.Before connecting the wires to the terminals of sockets, they must be stripped ends tinned soldering iron.
now announced a line of new wiring to the shield.Such lines usually must be at least two - one plant in the kitchen, because here there are many energy-intensive technology, the second line - in other rooms.Electric recommended fed from a single wire.For each of the lines needed power circuit breakers, they can be installed in the housing ladder or shield.
This work is to replace the wiring in the apartment over.It remains only to have input cables shield!