How to make a grounding in the apartment with his hands: the probability of realization and methods
- 04 Jun 00:45
special harness that connects to the electrical ground connection is vital in modern apartments.That is the main guarantor of grounding electrical.It eliminates the possibility of electric shock, the man inadvertently touched the body eletroustroystva in case of breakdown of the phase conductor or insulation failure.Moreover, all instructions to household appliances indicates that this product should not be used without grounding.In his absence manufacturers decline all responsibility in the failure of technology.Do not they bear responsibility for any consequences related to its improper connection.But hold grounding in the apartment?What is technology?And in all the apartments if it is feasible?Answers to these questions are presented in this article.
Ground for buildings ↑
in various houses use different earthing systems.Before the start of the
1. Thus, in the new (post-Soviet) houses, as a rule, modern system TN-C-S (has a zero as a working or protective conductors, which are normally connected to the main board of the building, they are further separated everywhere).In this system, road access to the risers suitable 3-phase L, and divided N (work zero) and PE (protective conductor).In this case, the connection process is much easier, since the floor panel already has separate bus for connecting zero phase and earth.And at ground bus has a metallic bond with the electrical housing.
Determine your home connected to this system (TN - C - S) is easy.Just look at the cable that is coming to the riser (introductory).It must have 5 wires:
- 3 phases, such as L1, L2, L3;
- zero protective PE;
- working zero N.
connection is as follows:
- phase wire from the apartment is connected to the same bus, which was the previous oldest wire;
- working zero N wires connected to the bus, in which the neutral conductor;
- grounding wire PE (protective earth) is connected to the body panel.
Important!Connect all ground wires (which panel) 1 screw (clamp) - impossible!It is necessary to apply different bolting.Better to use bus: screw it to the shield, and then connect the PE.
also important to consider the following:
- while, 3-pin input everything conductors must have the same cross-section (of copper 16 mm2);
- a 1-Well terminal machine can be clamped to the 2 conductors of the 1st section;
- to obtain uniform loading is preferred, 3-pin connection to the cooking surface;
- all metal parts in the bathroom (tube screen floor heating, bath and so on.) And the grounding conductor socket (of course, if there is such in the bathroom) must be connected to the bus PRSPs (or PMC), which should be the same.In this socket is powered by three-hprovodnoy scheme;
- all PE conductors in the presence of mechanical.protection should be 2.5 mm2, if it is not - 4 mm2.The conductor of the bus to the bus PRSPs panel PE (better story) - to be in the cross-section 6 mm2;
- preferred to share power and lighting circuits (outlet) .However allowed mixed feeding.A line of all power plants (stove, oven, CM) should be separate.
2. In some apartment buildings of a new type (1997) used a system of TN-S (neutral conductor (Protective and work) throughout the disconnected).Such grounding most reliable.When connecting the house ground wire installed separately, along with the phase, the neutral wire from the substation to the electrical house.Therefore, all the conditions to connect the grounding in the apartment already available.It is similar as in the TN - C - S.
How to make ground on the old house?↑
in older homes usually occurs system TN-C, which on the whole of its length zero conductors (working and protection) are combined into one neutral conductor (PEN).The case of electrical equipment (electrical, body guard or the assembly) is connected with the conductor PEN.This protection is called zeroing.Circuit vanishing installed at the substation that feeds the house.To the access struts suitable 3-phase L, and the combined PEN-conductor.All storied shields in such a system vanishes, and grounding them is not provided.
wiring in the case of single-phase power supply of housing is carried out 2-hzhilnymi cables (phase, PEN).Or 4-hzhilnymi cables (A, B, C, PEN) with 3-hfaznom feeding flat.The protective earth contact sockets available.
It is the oldest and most common earthing system.It is very long existed in the Soviet Union, and, unfortunately, still many houses still exist.Why "Unfortunately?And because when it is used there is a serious risk of electric shock.Circuit breakers (protective switching devices) installed with the system TN-C, protect email.circuit (group lines) a short circuit.But protection against electric shock is completely absent.
Important!If a qualified electrician to do the wiring recommend using the earthing system TN-C, do not hesitate to give up!She was not able to protect against electric shock!Job appliances such a system poses a potential threat to life!In addition, the SAE (p. 1.7.80) Do not place the RCD in the grounding system as the main protection.
According to the new standards adopted in 2003, in all old houses TN-C system should be translated in a TN-CS or TN-S through the modernization of power supply circuits (installation of potential equation).However, poor funding does not allow us to implement it in all homes.Most sluchaevenergosnabzhayuschie organization proceed as follows: on the introduction of an apartment building mounted repeated grounding of the neutral conductor.Then share the PEN-conductor into 2 separate wires:
- zero (N) working conductor;
- protective (PE) conductor.
Important!In the case of TN-C system alone to take in relation to the ground, unfortunately, nothing is impossible!You can not build your personal memory!Since it is located outside the house soup and can cause the appearance of stray currents.Therefore, you can only use existing obschedomovoy grounding system.
other words, you need to convert the whole or the whole house wiring to the new standards, or use electrical appliances with a body made of non-conductive material.It is also recommended to install an RCD on the circuit, which feed the appliances.It is particularly important - in the bathroom.RCD is not able to protect against electric shock, but from the deadly defeat them, it would save.
reasons, excluding mounting ground ↑
- If the ground is not connected to the water pipes, batteries, valves, and other conductive parts of the apartment, between a wiring connected to the equipment and those parts will be dangerous voltages.But even if you connect and get a good grounding, that with these designs equalizing current grounding will go through the entire apartment.These currents can be very large, so in violation of PEN (main earthing) there is a risk of fire due to excess current.But that is not all.In the event of electrical voltage on the housing, the battery or the grounded through a water pipe under pressure and all the pipes get battery including in neighboring apartments.As a result, a neighbor who decided to pour water from the tap to the death can strike shock!On the prohibition of the use of pipes written vPUE 1.7.110.
- also impossible to carry out a simulation circuit "ground" through the earthing-pin connection in the "zero working" with "zero protection" conductor.This is extremely dangerous.Frequent sluchaiotgoraniya "zero worker" conductor shield.This leads to what is on the computer, refrigerator, etc.located 220 W. Naturally, the consequences will be very sad.
- only exception is the grounding of "zero", which is done in homes specially designed for electric stoves.However, this should be done only after a careful study on the neutral conductor cross-section (at least 16 Blocks. For aluminum) and continuity (PUE 7, paragraph 1.7.131).Doing this should be by a qualified electrician.
Thus, we see that in some cases wire grounding in the apartment is not easy.Everything will depend on the system, which is applicable throughout the house.And if this system is TN - C - S or the TN - S, it is possible and very grounded (ie, to hold the wires in the apartment).If it is an old TN - C, in the case of individual apartments will not help even an experienced electrician.It needs to be changed throughout the house.