Pitched roof with his hands
- 07 May 23:15
- Construction Of Houses
in the construction of private homes is common to use a pitched roof structure.This approach has many positive sides.This arrangement and the possibility of additional living space under the roof, and high-quality removal of precipitation from its surface.But these benefits can be fully canceled, unless made quality pitched roof.After all, the roof is the shield that protects the roof structure from different atmospheric conditions and prevents its destruction.Make reliable pitched roof with his hands quite able to anyone who knows how to handle the tool understands the structure of the roof, its sites and materials.
- pitched roof truss roof insulation
- materials for pitched roof
- Material requirements and calculation pitched roof
- Requirements for materials for pitched roof pie
- calculation pitched roof
- pitched roof pitched roof waterproofing
- Warming pitched roof
- Laying roofing
pitched roof design
Create any building structure is impossible without an understanding of what elements it consists of and how it is arranged.And the roof of a private home is no exception.In addition, knowing the device pitched roof, you can be sure of the correctness of works that will reduce errors to a minimum or eliminate them.In addition, knowledge of construction pitched roof will perform all the necessary calculations for materials for her creations.
main units pitched roof following :
- truss structure consisting of mauerlat, rafters, battens and kontrobreshetki;
- insulating layer consisting of steam, water and heat insulation;
- roof ventilation;
- roofing material.
In the above picture the whole structure of the roof is shown in more detail:
main bearing element, which is fixed on the entire multi-layered cake roof are rafters.All truss built on the final stage of construction of the box at home.The grounds at the same time ties with the walls of the house performs mauerlat.It is based and fixed at a certain angle rafters.This truss can be for single-pitch roof, and then the angle of inclination is taken 20 - 30 degrees, for the gable and hip roof angle of 25 - 45 degrees.But for the mansard roof will be used two angle: for the lower 45 - 60 degrees, and for the top 25 - 35. As a material for truss construction is commonly used wood, less metal.
Especially should allocate crate and kontrobreshetku.Since these two elements of roof construction are responsible for fixing all layers of roofing pie, as well as provide under-roof ventilation.This crate can be ordinary and continuous.As the crates may make wooden slats section 50x40 mm or 25h100 mm or sheets of water-resistant plywood.For kontrobreshetki made use sticks 30x50 mm.The presence kontrobreshetki allows you to create a ventilation gap between the roofing material and the insulating layer of the roof.
When constructing pitched roof creating an insulating layer is given special attention.This is due to several factors.Firstly, via the insulating cake protected from moisture truss construction.Second, the quality of the roof insulation comprises insulating material than secures the roof and the interior of the temperature difference.Third, properly crafted cake pitched roof insulation allows withdraw the excess moisture from the interior, which has a positive effect on the climate in the building and ensures durability of the whole structure.
used for thermal insulation of the following materials: mineral or glass wool, polystyrene, extruded polystyrene, polyurethane foam, foam glass, ecowool.Determine what kind of insulation material presented better, it is quite difficult.Some people prefer the foam, some mineral wool.You should choose based on the requirements for insulating materials.But it should be noted next.When you select a note in the steam-insulation ability.It depends on whether the moisture accumulates under the roof, or it can freely go outside.
for steam and waterproofing layer, which protects the insulation used superdiffuzionnaya membrane.Its main advantage is one-sided output capacity of moisture, not missing again.To protect against possible leakage directly under the roofing material is laid plastic sheeting, roofing material, or all the same superdiffuzionnaya membrane.What exactly will be laid, depending on personal preference and budget.
materials for pitched roof
protection of the insulating cake and truss construction of various atmospheric phenomena appears roofing material.There are many different roofing materials.All of them are divided into several types: natural tile, metal, composite tile, metal seam roofing, slate, wave bitumen sheets, soft and roll roofing, asbestos cement sheets, as well as various natural roof.Each of these has advantages and disadvantages that should be considered when choosing a roofing material.
Material requirements and calculation pitched roof
As already noted, the roof is used to create several groups of different materials.Consider in more detail all the materials needed to build the roof of cake, as well as the example of performing the calculations hipped roof pitched roof and all the necessary materials.It is worth noting the following: everything about roofs, requirements and materials to them is governed by a regulatory document SNIP II-26-2010.Below, we consider only the basic requirements for a pitched roof and its calculation.
Requirements for materials for pitched roof pie
Because the roof of the house protects against various atmospheric phenomena, the requirements for roofing materials are presented fairly stringent.Among all the requirements necessary to identify the following:
- materials should be strong and durable, able to withstand gusts of wind and snow pressure;
- roofing should be waterproof;
- materials for the roof should not be afraid of changes in temperature;
- roofing should be resistant to various kinds of chemical attack;
- small proportion of materials;
- high vapor permeability;
- fire safety and fire resistance of materials;
- good performance of sound and noise reduction;
- roofing materials should be easy to install and maintain;
- environmentally friendly materials.
final choice of roofing depends on the angle of inclination of the rafters, as for some materials, there are restrictions on the slope.The table below shows the main roofing materials and angles to them.
Table 1 .
Unfortunately, materials with a perfect indicator.Each has its drawbacks.But when you create a pie pitched roof is possible to select the materials so that they complement each other.
calculation pitched roof
Performing calculations on a pitched roof made quite simple.Suffice it to recall the school geometry course and know some of the features in the calculations for different types of roofing.Consider the example of hip (hipped) roof the whole algorithm calculations.
First we need to calculate the total area of the roof.There is no special difficulties.Gambrel roof consists of two isosceles trapezoids and two isosceles triangles.Now, using Heron's formula for the area of a trapezoid and triangle from school geometry course, we expect the total area.
For example, triangular rays with the parties to 3 m and 4 m in the base area will be 4.47 m2.For ramps in the form of a trapezoid with sides of 3 m, 6 m at the base and tip of the 4 th area is 14.14 m2.Now, add the result and multiplying them by 2, we get a total area of gambrel roof to 37.22 m2.Similarly, the calculated and the area for other types of pitched roofs.The only thing worth noting is the need to 15 - 20% premium to the results obtained.This is necessary for two reasons.Firstly, in the process of creating the roof may be unexpected errors, and require replacement material.Secondly, many of the materials are stacked overlap that skradet part of their total area.
But as already mentioned, for different types of roofs have their own little tricks that need to be taken into account in the calculations.So much for the roof of metal or ceramic tile roof area must be taken into account in addition to the total length of the skates, the total length of the ridges and their number, the total length of the eaves and their number, the total length of the valley and their number, the total length of adjacency.All this is necessary for the acquisition of roofing fabric and related materials.
When calculating the soft roof should consider the appearance of a soft roof elements, the method of stacking sheets, useful and full-width, overhang and ridge overlap, the size of the overlap, and the combination of the pattern, if any.
For calculations of the roof sheet of slate, corrugated, copper sheets and galvanized sheets are taken into account the size of the sheets, the configuration of the roof, overlaps and interlocks, blocking skates, overhangs, and all related materials for fasteners.
As for insulation materials, it is all a little bit easier.For hydraulic and vapor barrier used the total area of the roof to 20% premium for overlaps.But for the insulation will have to perform several measurements of openings between the rafters, as this is where the insulation will be laid.But when it is planned to make a double layer of insulation, ceiling rafters, it is necessary to measure the area of the inside of the roof.
also necessary to identify materials for sheathing.As already noted, the very crate can be both solid and ratings.For continuous use or wide boards or water-resistant plywood.Calculation of amount is performed based on the total area of the roof.But for ordinary crates and kontrobreshetki all slightly different.Calculation is performed based on the number of rows multiplied by the length of the roof.Step to it is selected based on the slope of the roof, as well as the material used for the roof.The following table shows the relationship with respect to step sheathing roof slope.
Regarding the selection step crates, it is all quite simple.Under materials such as corrugated board, ceramic tile or slate sheathing step is taken so that the sheets with their edges lie on the crate.
Installation of ramp roofing
Construction of pitched roof performed in several stages: the creation of lathing, steam and waterproofing the roof, laying insulation material, creating kontrobreshetki and laying of roofing.The majority of the work does not require any special skills or abilities.Just laying roofing may require specialized knowledge and skills.The whole process of creating the roof, depending on the materials used require coordinated work of two or three people.If the roofing work is done by you for the first time, it is not superfluous to the presence and assistance of a specialist.
pitched roof waterproofing
protection against moisture for multilayer cake roof is of paramount importance.Especially it concerns the insulation layer.Therefore, the first thing starting arrangement of the roof, waterproofing it.All work is done after the installation of the rafters.Insulating material itself, namely superdiffuzionnaya membrane may lay in two ways.The first - the material is laid over the rafters, the second - it is fixed from the inside rafters.Preferably, the selected first, since in this case the rafters are also protected from moisture.
During flooring superdiffuzionnye membrane must be ensured that it is a little slack between the rafters.This will protect it from damage during heavy frost, because of which the material becomes brittle and by strong tension may tear.
The membrane itself has a width of 1.5 m, so in the course of her deck edge blades are started up lap, and for secure connections are glued shut.This runs along the roof deck, starting from the bottom.Thus, each successive sheet will overlap the previous one, and the moisture will simply slide without getting inside.It is mandatory to put one sheet along the ridge to create a coherent protection from moisture.Securing of the membrane is carried out using an ordinary crates stuffed on top.
Important!As already noted, when you create a pie pitched roof is laid several layers of waterproofing.The above is a basic, everything else just complement it.
Insulation of pitched roof
After laying and fixing superdiffuzionnye membrane proceed to the installation of thermal insulation for pitched roofs.Special difficulties in the works themselves do not.Depending on the chosen insulation between the rafters, he keeps the inside of the roof.
It is necessary to note a few important points.Firstly, the material must go tightly into the space between the rafters.Therefore, such as mineral insulation wool or trimmed so as to mats were 5 - 10 mm longer.Then the material will tightly, will not remain roach or slits.Secondly, if you have selected or extruded polystyrene foam, foam glass slabs are cut butt.Again so that they enter tightly, leaving no gaps.On top wool layer vapor barrier membrane is laid.Fixation of heat insulation and membranes is performed using packed batten strips over them.
But if wool is quite soft and can easily be deformed, the solid materials may be some difficulties.Often, the use of such heat-insulating materials are small gaps Mezhuyev rafters and insulation itself, which are cold bridges.To address this shortcoming, laid over an insulation layer is laid another.But this method is quite expensive.Therefore, when using such heaters as foam or Epps, a layer of insulation are laid on top of the rafters.
final stage of creating a pitched roof is laying of roofing material.Depending on the material laying it is done in various ways.The works themselves begin with packing kontrobreshetki.It is necessary to note the following.For roofing materials kontrobreshetka is the basis and therefore it will be solid.For solid roofing materials such as slate, tile or sheet metal strips made of kontrobreshetka.Consider the example of laying shingles and slate as is done laying of roofing material for pitched roofs.
Laying shingles, as well as laying the majority of roofing materials, as follows.Starting from the bottom of the roof, on a continuous crate plank waterproofing layer of roofing material.The rolls are rolled along the roof and fixed with special roofing nails.Then she laid on top of the roofing shingles.All work is done from the bottom up.