The roof of a private house with his own hands
- 16 May 09:45
- Construction Of Houses
Reliable roof - one of the main elements of a private house, which protects the structure from rain, wind, snow and other natural phenomena.Without it, my homeland is not possible to build a house in our latitudes.On top, the roof of a private
- Types roofs of private houses
- Design and installation of the roof of a private house
- How to build the roof of a private home
- How to insulate the roof of a private house
- How to cover the roof of a private house
carrying out construction of the house on their ownyou need to know and understand many aspects of the construction business, and the installation of the roof - one of the most difficult and time-consuming.To make the roof of a private house with his own hands, but the knowledge about the kinds of roofs, their design features and the installation steps, take another 3 or 4 reliable assistant, who are experts in the installation of roof constructions.
Types roofs of private houses
Design roof of a private house depends on what type of roof will be used.There are only two types of roofs: pitched and flat.And if a private house with a flat roof for the latitude of the CIS - more exotic, and meet these houses soon as possible in hotter parts, the pitched roof of a private house used everywhere.And to many reasons, the main of which - the presence of a large amount of precipitation.It's about the pitched roofs and will be further discussed.
pitched roof is a structure, roof plane is placed at an angle greater than 10 degrees.Such a roof can be with or without loft.Among the sloping roofs are distinguished:
- Shed roofs;
- gable roofs;
- pyramidal hipped roof;
- pyramidal hipped roof;
- mansard roof;
- hipped roof;
- shpilevidnye roof.
Important!Shed roof often operate at an angle of 20 - 30 degrees, with the dual angle of 25 - 45 degrees, the dormer roof may have two angle: 25 - 35 degrees for the top and 45 - 60 degrees to the bottom.
Types roofs of private homes: Photo - circuit
Design and installation of the roof of a private house
About how the roof will have a country house, care must be taken at the stage of creating the project of a private house.This is due to the convenience of a house as a whole.Of course, if there was a need to make a completely new roof for the house already built, will have to develop a new roof design that will fit harmoniously into the overall architectural concept.For the independent creation of a new roof design can take advantage of special architectural or programs contact the architectural organization.Today, a lot of these companies, and each of them will be able to offer ready-made designs of roofs of private houses, well-thought-out and proven.The second option is preferable, especially if you are new to the architectural practice.And not to make mistakes, it is better to employ a project roof professionals.
Sometimes customizing designers use is not quite the usual form roofs of private houses.These roofs are usually distinguished by smooth shapes and rounded edges.But this beauty is achieved through the complexity of truss construction, which leads to an increase in its weight.
Projects roofs of private homes - Photo:
For those who decided to create a project on their own roofs, below is a video tutorial on creating a project in the architectural roof program ArchiCAD:
engaged in designing the roof yourself, you must know how it is arranged, what it consists of, and what materials are best to use.This is very important because, without knowing the name of this or that element, and not knowing what it is, it will be impossible to do the project correctly.
main structural elements of the roofs of private houses:
- roof .This is the outer part of the roof, its cover, which serves as protection of the entire construction of the house on various natural phenomena such as rain, snow, etc.;
- crate .Part of the roof structure, which is mounted and roof insulation.Crate itself is attached to the rafters;
- ridge pole .The top of the entire truss construction in the form of beams, which are attached to the rafters;
- rafters .This element of the design functions as stiffeners for the entire roof.Rafters are placed at an angle and can be hanging and naslonnymi.The basis for the act of hanging rafters just two extreme support, it is often the wall.Such rafters operate in compression and bending.Most often used for hanging rafters mansard roofs.Naslonnye rafters rely on the two extreme points of support in addition to several internal (walls or support beams).Naslonnye rafters are only bending.
Important!In homes with multiple spans in truss construction can alternate and naslonnye hanging rafters.In places where there are no intermediate supports are used hanging rafters, and where the support is, naslonnye.
- mauerlat .This special beams arranged around the perimeter of the top wall.All truss rests on mauerlat and connects with them.Mauerlat fit flush with the wall and carefully waterproofing wall side.
- diagonal connection .To give the whole structure stiffness mauerlat rafters are connected to the longitudinal beams and using the diagonal braces, they are called struts.
- domestic support .Since the cement has sufficiently high weight, for a uniform distribution of load on its structure and Home impart additional robustness with vertical internal supports.These beams connect the truss and the longitudinal beams.
entire roof structure is associated with the walls of the house with the help of special pins (ruff).Also under the rafters may cut support niche and link them using a 6 mm steel wire.
to rafter roof construction of private houses often use the tree.Of course, creating and metallic structures, but the tree is most common because of lower prices and availability.Depending on the structure itself, step rafters and design loads for the use of truss construction timber section from 40h150 mm 100h250 mm.More detailed information is presented in the table:
Table №1.Characteristics of materials for the roof of a private house
cross-section trusses also depends on their length.Table №2 specified relationship between the length of the rafters and their section.
Table №2.Cross sections of rafters
The type of roofing depends on the slope of the roof.Table №3 submitted the required data.
Table №3.Specifications roofs
When creating a project of the roof should be aware of the following basic rules:
- design load of snow on the truss on slopes less than 60 degrees slope should be at least 180 kg / m2, and in some cases 400 - 500kg / m2.If the inclination angle more than 60 degrees, the load is not taken into account.
- calculated wind load of 35 kg / m2.When slope rafters more than 30 degrees is necessary to make additional allowance for the increased load.
- The design should take into account two important parameters: the strength and deformation.
- for reinforcement metal elements can be used.In this case, to protect the wooden elements from the condensation of moisture and decay, they must be treated with special structure.
on requirements to the roof structure can be found in more detail in the document SNIP "Loads and effects."
How to build the roof of a private home
create a project and purchase all necessary materials, it is possible to start the construction of the roof truss.As noted earlier, for this type of work will require 3 - 4 partner.Construction of the roof of a private house starting with the manufacture of the necessary elements of a design.Then proceed to the installation:
- primarily stacked and secured on the longitudinal bearing walls mauerlat.By the walls of their fixed with anchor bolts.If it provided by the project, cut in mauerlat supporting niches.
- To simplify the construction of rafters is necessary to make a pattern.Take two boards, connect them to the ends of one nail.Install the free edges of the boards on mauerlat.By breeding ends laterally select the desired angle and by means of transverse rungs fix the board at that position.Do not forget to make sure that the horse was exactly in the center of the building.To do this, we use a plumb line.
- now resulting pattern can be applied to the joists for rafters and cut them at the desired angle.
- After the first cut rafters, connect them in place and fix the crossing with 3 nails or bolts.
- rises up and connected to the rafters set in place, and then made as follows.
- second rafters set at the end of the building and fix them.
- Now take the cord and shrinking of its established between the rafters, it should be to pull the cord was strictly on the horizon.If necessary, one of the rafters set lower a little bit.
- Produce remaining rafters and install them on the stretched cord increments specified in the project.
- To strengthen and enhance the stability of the structure set up and fix the support posts and diagonal communication.
Important!For fastening and fixing of all the elements of design are usually used nails.But on the market today can be found stamped metal parts that are somewhat simplify the process of erection of truss construction.
How to insulate the roof of a private home
completed construction of truss construction, can proceed to the roof insulation.These works are carried out immediately before laying the roof.But all the calculations and choice of materials for thermal insulation of the roof of a private house are conducted at the design stage.Thermal insulation of the roof is important for several reasons.First, it protects the entire structure from large temperature changes, which affects the durability of the materials used.Secondly, the dew point at the correct insulation is shifted closer to the outer edge of the roof, and thus formed a favorable and comfortable microclimate in the house.
choosing materials for roof insulation, should be guided by the following characteristics:
- resistance to temperature changes;
- resistance to humidity;
- resistance to mechanical stress;
- low thermal conductivity;
- environmentally friendly materials that do not produce harmful substances;
- low combustibility;
- material density less than 250 kg / m3.
Today the market offers a lot of different insulating materials.Among them are particularly popular mineral wool, but experts recommend to pay attention to another material - foamed glass.Any of these materials would be suitable.
to roof insulation was quality, do the following:
- From inside the rafters laid insulation and fix it to the rafters by means of staples.Sheets vapor barrier material to start up an overlap between them and sizing tape.It follows that the vapor barrier material tightly encircle all rafters.
- Now the rafters in increments of 50 cm fills wooden slats, which are currently on hold insulation.
- carefully pruned insulation so that she went up against the rafters and not leave gaps, and put it in place.
- To ensure protection of insulation from moisture from the outside rafters plank waterproofing layer.Over strips fills crates, which will later be laid roof.These slats simultaneously serve and fasteners for waterproofing.It remains to put roofing materials and roof ready for a country house.
How to cover the roof of a private house
The market offers a variety of roofing materials, and making the right choice is sometimes quite difficult.To facilitate this task, you must be guided by the following parameters:
- weight of roofing material.It must not exceed 250 kg / m2.
- durability.Everything is simple, the longer - the better.
- fire resistance.The non-burning material is more preferable.
- Sustainability.On how the roofing material is clean and natural, will depend on indoor climate at home.
- Easy installation.The lighter and easier to lay roofing material, the smaller the cost of time and it will be easier to repair the roof.
- aesthetic appeal.
Today is very popular metal, ceramic tiles and tsementnopeschanaya.These roofing materials in combination with a good noise, thermal insulation and strong truss will create a solid roof.As usual slate, he is still one of the most commonly used roofing materials, but because of its environmentally unfriendly slate gradually losing popularity.Separately want to highlight the bitumen and polymer-bitumen materials.They belong to a class of soft roofing materials, and the price makes it accessible to everyone.Unfortunately, the level of combustibility is poor, but in compliance with all fire regulations, they can be a reliable roof.For those who are not short of money, experts recommend pay attention to shale materials.This type of roof is known for a long time, and today it is even more popular because of its natural origin, durability, flammability and very high appeal.