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How to make a sewer in a private home - arrangement options

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urgent question that torments all who want to stay in a private country houses without the possibility of connecting to a central water supply and sanitation, how to make autonomous sewer.After all, without it is not possible to make full use of the benefits of civilization, bathtub, shower, sink in the kitchen, washing machine and more.Sewage in a private home can be equipped with a variety of ways, which we will discuss in this article.To choose the right system suitable for your individual circumstances and needs, even more important than put it into practice.

  1. What can be sewage system - private house permanent and temporary residence
    • Sump bottomless
    • sealed containers - storage tank
    • single chamber septic tank - the simplest version of a soil cleaning
    • two-chamber septic tank - overflow wells, septic tanks Septic
    • with the field of filtration - biological and soil purification
    • Septic a biofilter - a natural cleaning station
    • Septic forced air - artificial purification station
  2. Water supply and sewerage system of a private house - common rules
  3. Sewerage in a private home: the video - an example

What can be sewage system - private house permanent and temporary residence

option arrangement drainage systems in private homes selected depending on several conditions:

  • House with permanent or temporary residence.
  • How many people permanently living in the home.What
  • daily water consumption per person in the house (depending on the number of water consumers, such as a bathroom, shower, toilet, sink, sink, washing machine and others.)
  • What level of groundwater.
  • What size plot, how much space can be used for water treatment plants.
  • What is the structure and type of soil on the site.
  • climatic conditions.

More information about the requirements of the relevant sections can be SanPin and SNIP.

Conventionally, all the sewage system in a private home can be divided into only two types:

  • funded system (cesspit without a bottom, sealed container for waste).
  • Facilities wastewater treatment (the simplest single-chamber septic tank cleaning with soil, two-chamber septic tank - shimmering with natural cleaning wells, two - three-chamber septic tank with a field of filtration, septic tank with bacteria filter, septic tank (aeration tank) with a constant air supply).

Sump bottomless

Bottomless cesspool

oldest, proven for centuries and even millennia the way everything sewage - septic tank.Even some 50 - 70 years ago, this method is not alternative.But while people did not use such a large amount of water in private homes as it is today.

Septic Tank is a bottomless pit.The walls of the sump can be made of brick, concrete rings, concrete, or other material.At the bottom is the soil.If you get out of the house drains into a hole more or less clean water seeps into the soil cleaned.Fecal matter and other solid organic waste settle to the bottom, accumulating.Over time, the well is filled with solid waste, then it should be cleaned.

Previously wall sump did watertight while at filling the hole and buried it just pulled a new one in a different location.

Immediately it should be noted that the unit drain in a private home with the help of the sump is possible only if the average daily volume of waste water is less than 1 m3.In this case, soil micro-organisms that live in soil and feed on organic matter, have time to treat the water that penetrates into the soil through the bottom of the pit.If more than this amount of effluent standards, water is not clean enough passes, it penetrates into the soil and contaminate groundwater.This creates the risk that a radius of 50 m may be contaminated wells and other water sources.Adding to the cesspool of microorganisms decreases somewhat unpleasant smell coming from it, and accelerates the process of water purification.But, nevertheless, it is not worth the risk.

Conclusion .Bottomless cesspool can be built in if the house there are arrivals 2 - 3 days a week and do not consume a lot of water.The level of ground water should be below the bottom of the well at least 1 m, otherwise the pollution of soil and water sources can not be avoided.In spite of the lowest cost of everything, cesspool is not popular in modern country houses and cottages.

sealed containers - storage tank

Hermetic container - drain of a private house

The area around the house is set sealed container, which trickles of sewage pipes and waste from around the house.This capacity can be finished, store-bought, and made of plastic, metal or other material.A can be mounted independently of the concrete rings, the bottom of the concrete and a metal cover.The main condition for the installation of sewerage in the private house of a similar type - a complete seal.For sewerage corrugated pipes fit pragma.

When the container is full, it must be cleaned.To do this, it calls assenizatorskaya machine, which is a call from 15 to 30 USDThe frequency of emptying the container, as the required amount depends on the number of discharges.For example, if the house is 4 persons reside, are bathtub, shower, sink, toilet, washing machine, the minimum volume of the storage tank must be 8 m3, it will have to be cleaned every 10 - 13 days.

Pumping sewage assenizatorskaya machine from a sealed container

Conclusion .Sealed septic tank - one of the options, how to spend the sewers in a private home, if the level of groundwater at the site is high.This will fully protect the soil and water sources from possible contamination.The lack of a sewage system that will often cause assenizatorskaya car.To do this, from the very beginning it is necessary to calculate the place of installation capacity to provide easy access to it.The bottom of the well or reservoir should be deeper than 3 m from the ground surface, or clean the hose will not reach to the bottom.You need to insulate the lid to protect the pipeline from freezing.In such a sewer in a private home value depends on the material of the container.The cheapest option is the purchase of cubic b / y, the most expensive - pouring concrete or brick.In addition - the monthly cost of treatment.

single chamber septic tank - the simplest version of a soil cleaning

Single-chamber septic tank - pit filter

single chamber septic tank is not far away from the sump, it is very often are called.It is a well, which filled the bottom gravel layer at least 30 cm, and on top of coarse sand in the same layer.Sewage water pipes fall into the well, where the water percolating through the layer of sand, gravel, and then the soil is cleaned by 50%.Bedding sand and gravel to improve the quality of water treatment and partially faeces, but not solve the problem fundamentally.

Conclusion .Implementation of sanitation in a private home by a single-chamber septic tank is not possible with permanent residence, and large volumes of waste.Only houses with temporary residence and a low water table.After a while, rubble and sand will need to be completely replaced, as they silted.

two-chamber septic tank - overflow wells, septic tanks

As one of the efficient options sewage, which can be mounted independently, construction of overflow wells, septic tanks and filtration wells enjoys widespread popularity.

Overflow wells - septic tank cleaning soil

This sewage system in a private house consists of two wells - one with a sealed bottom, and the second - no bottom, but with the powder, as in the previous method (gravel and sand).The wastewater from the house enters the first well, wherein the solid organic waste and feces sink to the bottom, fat float to the surface, and between them formed a more or less clarified water.At a height of about 2/3 of the first well it connects with the second well of the overflow pipe located slightly inclined to allow water to drain freely there.Part of the clarified water enters the second well, where seeping through the powder of crushed stone, sand and soil is cleaned and goes even further.

first well of a septic tank, and the second - the well screen.Over time, the first pit accumulated a critical mass of feces, which is necessary to remove the cause assenizatorskaya car.Doing this will have approximately every 4 - 6 months.To reduce unpleasant smell, the first well was added microorganisms that decompose feces.

overflow drain in a private home: photos - example

Sewer overflow from a private home wells

two-chamber septic tank can be done independently of the concrete rings, bricks or concrete, and can be purchased ready-made (plastic) from the manufacturer.The finished two-chamber septic tank will still occur and additional purification using specific microorganisms.

Conclusion .Set in a private house drains of the two pits can overflow only if the groundwater level, even in high water is below 1 m from the bottom of the second well.Ideal conditions for a sandy or sandy loam soil at the site.After 5 years of gravel and sand in the well will have to replace the filter.

Septic with the field of filtration - biological and soil purification

We now describe more or less serious treatment systems that allow not to worry for environmental pollution.

This type of septic tank is a container, divided into 2 - 3 sections or more separate tanks, wells, connected by pipes.In most cases, by deciding to equip such type of sewage, septic acquired factory production.

In the first sedimentation tank wastewater occurs, as in the preceding process (a well-settler).As part of the clarified water pipe enters the second container or section where anaerobic bacteria decompose organic residues.Further clarified water reaches the field of filtration.

Septic tank with filter field

filtration fields represent the area under the ground, where the waste water are clean soil.Due to the large area (about 30 m2), the water is purified by 80%.The ideal case, if the ground is sandy or sandy loam, would otherwise have to be equipped with artificial pitch filtering of crushed stone and sand.After passing through the fields of filtration water is collected in pipes and is discharged into drains or wells.Above the fields of filtration can not plant trees or edible vegetables, permitted only to break a bed.

Over time field silting and must be cleaned, or rather replace gravel and sand.Can you imagine how much work will have to perform, and what will become your site afterward.

Conclusion .Laying of sewerage in a private house, assuming the field of filtration, is only possible if the groundwater level below 2.5 - 3 m. The rest - it's quite a constructive solution provided there is sufficient space.Also do not forget that the distance from fields to filter water sources and residential buildings must be greater than 30 m.

Septic a biofilter - a natural cleaning station

deep cleaning station allows you to perform a full installation of sewage in a private home, evenIf the groundwater level is very high.

septic tank is a tank divided into 3 - 4 sections.Acquire it better have a proven producer, after consulting with the professionals on the subject of the required volume and equipment.Of course, at such drains in the private house price is not the lowest, starts from 1200 USD

In the first chamber septic tank water sedimentation occurs in the second - the decomposition of organic matter by anaerobic micro-organisms, the third camera is used for separation of water, as is the fourth expansion of the organics using aerobic bacteria, which need a constant flow of air.To do this, the camera is mounted on the pipe, towering above the ground on 50 cm. Aerobic bacteria podselyayut on the filter installed on the pipe leading from the third to the fourth section.In fact, this is the field of filtration - only in miniature, and concentrated.Due to the small area of ​​promotion of water and a high concentration of micro-organisms, there is a thorough cleaning of water up to 90 - 95%.Such water can be safely used for technical purposes - watering the garden, washing the car, and more.For this fourth section of pipe bends, leading either to a container for storage of purified water or the drainage ditch or a pit, where it is simply absorbed in the soil.

sewage Sewage treatment in a private home - work scheme:

Septic a biofilter - a system of biological treatment of sewage

Conclusion .Septic a biofilter - a good solution for a private home with a permanent residence.Microorganisms may be added in a septic tank, simply poured them into the toilet bowl.There are no restrictions for the use of such a treatment plant there.The undeniable advantage is that it does not require summing up the electricity.The only drawback - the water drain wiring in a private home requires permanent residence, as no permanent stay of wastewater bacteria are killed.When the shares, new strains, they begin active only after two weeks.

Septic forced air - artificial purification station

fast cleaning station where natural processes occur by artificial means.Sewer construction work in a private home with the aeration basin will require summing up the electricity connection to a septic tank for the booster pump and the air diffuser.Such

septic consists of three separate chambers or containers interconnected.The first chamber receives water at sewage pipes, where settles and solid waste precipitate.Partially clarified water is pumped from the first chamber into the second.

Aeration - aeration station biological wastewater treatment

second camera - actually is the aeration tank, where the water is mixed with activated sludge which consists of microorganisms and plants.All microorganisms and bacteria of the active sludge - aerobic.It is for their full life need forced aeration.

mixed with sludge water enters the third chamber - settling tank for a deep cleaning.Then the sludge is pumped back into the aeration tank special pump.

purge provides rather rapid treatment of waste water, which can then be used for technical purposes.

Conclusion .Aerotank - expensive but necessary in some cases pleasure.Price starts from 3700 USDThere are no restrictions on the installation of such sewage there.Disadvantages - the demand for electricity and permanent residence, or activated sludge bacteria are killed.

Water supply and sewerage system of a private house - common rules

on the location of the sewer facilities subject to certain limitations.

Septic should be located:

  • no closer than 5 m from the residential building;
  • no closer than 20 - 50 m away from a water source (wells, boreholes, reservoirs);
  • no closer than 10 meters from the garden.

Residential building must be at a distance of:

  • 8 m from the well screen;
  • 25 meters from the filter fields;
  • 50 meters from the aeration treatment installations;
  • 300 meters from wells or drain stations.

Arrangement of outdoor sewerage private house

pipes leading to the septic tank, you must warm so they do not freeze in winter.For this they wrapped insulating material and inserted into asbestos cement pipes.External wiring in a private home sewage pipes with a diameter of 100 made - 110 mm, the slope should be 2 cm to 2 m, ie2 °, in practice, make a few more - 5 - 7 ° (with a margin).But this case is not joking, because greater bias will cause the water to move quickly through the pipes, and the feces and litter them to linger, and the smaller the angle of inclination does not provide any advancement of wastewater pipes.It is advisable to lay the pipe so that there was no turns and corners.