- 07 Jun 05:15
Blackberry still not as popular among Russian gardeners, like raspberries.But over the years its popularity is growing thanks to the delicious berries, which literally covered the entire plant.In addition, when grown on a trellis, it creates a beautiful decorative fence all strewn small flowers.In this article we consider the basic rules of blackberry cultivation and care for her.
- place for planting blackberry bramble
- Blackberry planting and care
- Soil Preparation Planting blackberries
- Care blackberry bush
- Preparation forwinter
- Diseases and pests
- Lack of nutrients
- Popular varieties of blackberries
- Blackberry - is a spreading shrub with long erect or creeping shoots of the family Rosaceae, which grows throughout the northern hemisphere.This plant with a strong root system that can penetrate deep into the soil, so it does not freezes, even during strong frosts.Also because of the deep layers of the main root, blackberries can be easy to carry short-term drought.
- Lifetime stems - two years.In the first year the branches grow, and in the second enter the stage of fruiting, and then die.The bushes can grow up to 15 years in one place, then they must be removed.Stems and stems have sharp spines, thorns.Blackberry blossoms white flowers up to 3 cm in diameter, the flowers are bisexual and self-pollinating.
- Fruiting large berries round or conical shape, which is called polydrupes.Berries in the stage of full maturity are deep black, but breeders have withdrawn zheltoplodnye and krasnoplodnye varieties.Blackberry is considered among the record for the fruiting berry crops, as an adult with a bush in a season you can collect up to 25 kg of berries.
- bushes grown in sunny areas, have a sweet berries than those that grow in shade and partial shade.Gardeners love blackberries because of the rich content of various mineral elements in its fruits.The berries are present vitamins B, C, A, P, E, glucose, sucrose, fructose, cellulose, organic acids, and many micro and macro.The plant is valued not only because of the fruit, but also because of the leaves that are used as tea.
place for planting blackberries
- Blackberry prefers to grow on the sunny open spaces.In poor lighting conditions the shoots are pulled strongly, ovaries wither, the leaves fall prematurely.In nature, the plant grows in the rain forests, along the banks of small ponds.Therefore, the optimum conditions for growing blackberries in the gardens is considered a temperate climate, fertile soil with a constant level of humidity and good drainage, and the availability of protection from strong winds.
- permission plantation should be flat or be located on the southern slope.Should not be grown on calcareous soils blackberry, since this primer contains the elements important for its growth (such as iron and magnesium).
- bushes root system is powerful enough, and consists of a thick central root and root-small appendages.The main root can trailing varieties has a depth of 150 cm and 70 cm erect, adventitious roots almost all grades extend close to the surface (40 cm) in a radius of 50 cm. This feature should be borne in mind, preparing for landing place.
- best considered forerunners of cereals and legumes, not feeling blackberry, planted after the Solanaceae (tomato, potato).
villa in practice using several methods of reproduction blackberry.
- apical layering .Such a method is suitable for breeding creeping varieties.In July and August the bushes next to the parent to make a groove depth of 30 cm and placed them neodrevesnevshie tops of the stems, then sprinkle them with earth.Before winter shoots must take root, but do not germinate.Spring shoots can be separated from the mother plant and planted to a permanent place.
- seed. Most varieties at seed multiplication able to maintain maternal signs to the maximum extent.Seeds harvested at the stage of full ripeness and winter is placed in a cool place for stratification.In early March seed get, soaked for several days in thawed water or any growth stimulator and then planted in the boxes to a depth of 8 mm.Crops are regularly watered with warm water and kept at a temperature of 20 ° C.Seedlings planted in open ground after the appearance of 4 of these leaflets.Stronger than before the autumn is recommended to repot the plant to a permanent place.Grown this way blackberries, begins to bear fruit in the 4 year.
- root cuttings .In September and October the bush completely dug and cut all the shoots and root system is cut into cuttings (up to 7 cm long and 1 cm thick).The prepared material is stored in a cool, wet peat or sand.In the spring, as soon as the earth warms, the grooves are cut to a depth of 15 cm and placed it root segments every 20 cm. Planting material poured loose earth and abundantly watered.During the summer, produce regular watering, weeding and hoeing.In the fall there will be a strong seedlings.With an adult mother bush receive up to 300 new plants.During the multiplication besshipnyh varieties grow bushes with thorns, so this method does not suit them.
- suckers .Each blackberry bush is able to give each year to 20 young shoots from the root.In May and June, when the stems reach 15 cm, choose strong, healthy shoots and carefully separate them from the main bush, then immediately transplanted to a permanent growth.This operation can be done and in the autumn, but the bushes are not always successfully overwinter.
- dividing the bush .This method is used in the case does not overgrown blackberry.Bush dig and divide into 5-6 parts, each leave 2-3 strong young shoots.The resulting material was planted in a permanent place.It is best to divide the bush in early autumn, to the winter, he had to get stronger.
Blackberry planting and care
pochvosmesi ideal for planting blackberry is considered friable loam and well drained loam rich in humus.You can prepare your own ground of the following components (with the expectation of a bush 1):
- rotted manure or compost is mature - 20 liters;
- alumina - 40 l;
- potash fertilizer - 70 ml;
- superphosphate - 100 ml.
Instead of potash fertilizer, you can use wood ash, which in addition to potassium is composed of calcium and phosphorus, as well as a number of useful trace elements - manganese, iron, boron and molybdenum.
- optimum planting time Blackberry is considered to spring sap flow, April or beginning of May.Varieties with good frost may be planted in the fall, before frost.Choose strong plants with one or two stems and extensive root system.All the dried and broken branches are removed.The distance between the bushes at least 150-200 cm, it is better to leave more to harvesting approach to blackberry was free, in addition, this measure will provide the plant must of sunshine.
- landing pit dug to a depth of 40-50 cm, width will depend on the root system of plants, which should be freely placed in the hole (about 30 cm).At the bottom of the stack drainage and covered 2/3 of a previously prepared soil mix.It is desirable that the soil was moist when it is dry, then poured into the pit 5-10 liters of water.Before the landing lightly pruned roots, 1-2 cm. Seedling arranged so that the root collar is level with the soil surface or a little deeper.
- roots covered with earth, which should be lightly compacted.To fill the void of the soil, the seedling slightly shaken.Around wells leave small ledges that when watering the water is not flowing.Just watering blackberry is not recommended, it is better to do it week after planting, and then mulch the soil with humus or rotted sawdust.
- A couple of weeks the seedlings are cut, leaving the shoots up to 25 cm. In the first year the plants need constant care, a weekly watering, weeding and hoeing.
- It is demanding to care, since the wrong growing blackberries is possible not only to deterioration of its appearance, but also a significant reduction in yields.
- Blackberry considered to heat and light-loving plants.It prefers slightly acidic soil with a neutral or reaction.Primer for its landing should not be hard, but must not be aisles weeds.In the period of mass flowering it is important that the ground was moist, but avoid stagnation of water, as Blackberry does not tolerate flooded and wetlands.
- after watering or rain is necessary to loosen the soil to a depth of 8 cm, taking care not to damage the shallow roots, mulch between rows any loose organic matter.If the blackberry grows in damp, poorly drained ground, then spend mulching is not recommended.
- for the full development of blackberries should be carried out regularly trim the stems.This procedure is carried out twice a year - spring and fall.Stalks Blackberry quite flexible, so the formation should not bring much trouble, but still, it is worth to take into account the presence of spikes and carry out all the work gloves.
Tip: blackberry bushes are planted at a distance of 1.5 m to 5 m (depending on variety).Observe a distance necessary for the further development of normal plants, close-fitting bushes interfere with each other to grow, it is also difficult care and harvesting.
- In the first year start to shape the future of blackberry plantation, spreading the young shoots in the right direction.
bush form in several ways:
- in fan shape - sharing fruiting shoots and young shoots;
- in the form of cable - the vertical placement of the shoots on the trellis;
- in the form of weaving - obvivaya shoots trellis, like braiding them;
- in bush form - is located in the center of the bush support, which is formed around the plant.
Tip: erect varieties of blackberries grown on trellises made.For their devices must be installed supports up to 2 m, every 5-10 m. The supporting pillars pull wire or twine 2-4 30-60 cm. In this wire and will tie up the branches of blackberries.
- As a rule, the second year of the bushes are beginning to bear fruit.Berries appear in last year's lateral shoots.New young shoots should be oriented towards the growth of the main bush and slightly separated from the fruit-bearing branches.After harvest, the stalks otplodonosivshie completely cut, replacing them with young sprouts.
- For an abundant harvest twice a year should pinch the tops of the bushes (May and July), such a procedure would lead to active branching.After reaching the escape height 130-180 cm, it pruned to 8-12 cm. This left only the strong side shoots, and the rest are removed.Appeared blossoms in the first year after planting, it is best to break off to the bushes and gained strength in the next year brought a bountiful harvest.
double cropping blackberry
- cut old shoots begin in late summer harvest, as this is, firstly, to help improve the fruiting next year, and secondly, in this branchwhile there are still green and easy to cut.Cut shoots need to burn, and not in any case not to leave near the planting blackberries, otherwise it will lead to the proliferation of insect pests.
- Formed shrub has 5-8 strong stems, cut the excess annual spring the young shoots, leaving the strong shoots to replace.If overwintered shoots are damaged, they must be trimmed down to a healthy place.
- believed that Blackberry is drought resistant, but still, it is water-loving plants, so avoid drying of the soil should not be, especially during the ripening berries.From a long-term drought severely affected the aerial part of plants, young shoots can not grow properly, begin to crumble already laid the ovary, and the existing berries shrink and disappear.
- Besides constant soil moisture, blackberries and requires a certain humidity, so during a prolonged drought is producing spraying bushes in the evening.
- Young bushes in the first year after planting, it is necessary to water, keeping the soil moist in.Watering only defended warm water drip.By the end of the summer irrigation limit and late autumn under every bush poured 30 liters of water that were frozen blackberries are not in the winter.
- Like any garden crops, blackberries need a balanced diet.Increased intake of nutrients is observed in the active growth phase, during flowering and fruit formation.This is roughly from May to July.At this time, the bushes are fed with chemical fertilizers.But do not overfeed the plant, as it may adversely affect the condition of the bushes and productivity.
- During flowering blackberry requires potassium, so you should make any potash fertilizer or water the bushes of ash solution (10 liters of water 200 g of ash).During pouring of berries produce foliar fertilizer complex mineral fertilizers, sprayed on the sheet with a solution with the addition of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.Any mineral fertilizers applied to the soil only after wetting.
- blackberry bushes growing in one place for 10-15 years, so it is important for 3-4 years after planting to contribute annually at the plant organic fertilizer, such as rotted manure, peat, sawdust or compost, and watered inflowering diluted chicken droppings.
- organics tend to make digging in the autumn.To do this, dig up the aisles and on 1 sq.m.make up to 5 kg of manure, by mixing it with superphosphate (30 g) and potassium sulfate (40 g).In the spring, as soon as the first buds, blackberries fed any nitrogen fertilizer (ammonium nitrate or urea).In late summer, you can not make fertilizers, as this will lead to strong growth of plants, which means that the bushes will not normally prepare for winter.
- Many gardeners prefer to leave in the winter otplodonosivshie shoots, considering that they will help to protect the young stems from winter freezing.But do not forget that the longer shoots remain on the bush, the more they consume nutrients, and thus weaken the plant.
- To prepare for the winter of young shoots should be detached from the support and bend to the ground, so that the snow cap without breaking the fragile branches.Varieties that do not tolerate frost must be protected fir or pine or spruce branches cover material wrap.Frost varieties optional cover for the winter, it is enough to trim the branches to a height of 120-170 cm.
- spring blackberry necessarily reveal that it does not vyprela not start to rot, this should be done before bud break.